Spn 788 transmission clutch actuator. Mar 16, 2023 · About Press Copyright Contact us Cr...

J1939: SA 3 SPN 560 FMI 2, 11, 12, 14, 20, 21, 31. Overview. T

Sep 23, 2018 · I have a 2016 Volvo VNL that has an intermittent SPN-788 Transmission Clutch Actuator that pops up when under heavy load. bobtailing, no code. empty trailer, code every once in a while. loaded trailer … read more Jan 2, 2024 · Key off. 2. Remove Electric Clutch Actuator from transmission housing. 3. Attempt to rotate the crossshaft and yoke assembly by hand. If the cross-shaft assembly rotates by hand from the release bearing to the transmission case Replace the Clutch. See CLMT0365 for installation procedure. Fault Code 64: Gen2 Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) | Fault Isolation Procedures TRTS0940 Fault Code 64: Gen2 Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) J1587: MID 130 PID 34 FMI 2, 7, 12 J1939: SA 3 SPN 788 FMI 2, 7, 12 Overview The UltraShift PLUS transmission equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the …Oct 17, 2016 · so this is a clutch systems fault, most of the time being set from low air pressure or air leaks, it could also be set if the cca is seeing a higher actuating position than what it has seen previosly, that being said most of the time they happen when air pressure is low, i would test your clutch system with ptt to make sure there is no leaks in the system and also check the X values and see ... The Fuller Advantage transmission is equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. Power and ground to the ECA are OEM-supplied through a 3-Way Connector directly connected to the vehicle batteries. The ECA is connected to the TECU by an 8-Way Connector that is part of the transmission harness. This fault can occur with both Data-link Mechanical (DM) and Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) clutch models. Detection DM Clutch Fault Detection Starting at key on and throughout operation, the Transmission Electronic Control Unit (TECU) constantly measures engine RPM and idle torque from the engine.2016 vovlo vnl 780 d13SPN: 788 - Transmission Clutch Actuator FMI: 8 - Abnormal Frequency, Pulse Width, ... SPN-33 Clutch cylinder position, SPN-37 Transmission Air tank pressure, SPN-4375 Aftertreatment DEF pump drive percentage, SPN-627 Power supply (obsolete) ...Oct 17, 2016 · so this is a clutch systems fault, most of the time being set from low air pressure or air leaks, it could also be set if the cca is seeing a higher actuating position than what it has seen previosly, that being said most of the time they happen when air pressure is low, i would test your clutch system with ptt to make sure there is no leaks in the system and also check the X values and see ... I got a problem with a 2011 international dt466 with the eaton transmission fallowing code Transmission spn 788 fmi 7 transmission clucth actuator. Submitted: 3 years ago. Category: Medium and Heavy Trucks. Show More. Show Less. Ask Your Own Medium and Heavy Trucks Question ... I got primary shift selector clutch … Purpose:Verify mechanical condition of the Rail D Sliding Clutch and clutching teeth. Inspect the Rail D Sliding Clutch yoke slot for wear. Shift the Rail D Sliding Clutch to the neutral position (if necessary). Shift the Rail D Sliding Clutch into the Primary Driven Gear engagement position (fore). Affordable, reliable and built to last, Hyundai part # 414702D011 Actuator Assembly-Clutch(1) stands out as the smart option. HyundaiPartsDeal.com is your prime online source with the biggest and best selection of genuine Hyundai parts and accessories at giant discounted prices. ... 1-888-788-8214; Follow Us:housing, clutch, transmission, or the engine flywheel was resurfaced. TCM may report fault codes: Fault Code SPN FMI Description 250 33 7 Linear Clutch Actuator Position 250 33 9 Linear Clutch Actuator Position The Endurant Transmission requires a specific engine flywheel housing to ensure the correct Split Dimension.Endurant HD automated transmission. The Endurant HD is a lightweight, highly efficient transmission designed for superb driveability in on-highway applications. Sophisticated software allows the engine and transmission to work seamlessly, improving efficiency and performance. Smart features like a transmission fluid pressure sensor help protect ...Affordable, reliable and built to last, Hyundai part # 414702D011 Actuator Assembly-Clutch(1) stands out as the smart option. HyundaiPartsDeal.com is your prime online source with the biggest and best selection of genuine Hyundai parts and accessories at giant discounted prices. ... 1-888-788-8214; Follow Us:Its great flexibility and performance also makes the modular clutch actuator by Schaeffler perfect for motorsport. It is set to make its DTM debut in 2022 – in the new BMW M4 GT3 of Schaeffler brand ambassador Marco Wittmann. Being a pioneer primarily means breaking new ground. But before the first step is taken, these new paths have to be found.Pain Signal Transmission - Pain signal transmission relies on sensory fibers in the dorsal roots to transmit pain to the spinal cord. Learn more about pain signal transmission. Adv...I got primary shift selector clutch actuator and shift finger neutral indicator International Prostar. I have a 2017 pro - Answered by a verified Technician ... Spn 780 transmission finger Spn 751 primary shift selector Spn 788 clutch actuator. ... 2014 mack truck is giving a transmission air tank pressure code spn 37 ...This fault code is for your clutch actuator circuit. Fault Code 64: Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) J1587: MID 130 PID 34 FMI 2, 7, 12 J1939: SA 3 SPN 788 FMI 2, 7, 12. Overview. The UltraShift PLUS transmission equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. ...CLUTCH ACTUATOR (I SHIFT) for Honda CIVIC 1.8 EXI 5 Doors Intelligent Manual Transmission 2008 - Order your original Honda car spares with our part diagrams ️ Search by model or part number ️ Honda parts with manufacturer warranty - Secure payment ... 5 Doors Intelligent Manual Transmission CLUTCH ACTUATOR (I … I have a 2016 Volvo VNL that has an intermittent SPN-788 Transmission Clutch Actuator that pops up when under heavy load. bobtailing, no code. empty trailer, code every once in a while. loaded trailer … read more Sep 23, 2018 · I have a 2016 Volvo VNL that has an intermittent SPN-788 Transmission Clutch Actuator that pops up when under heavy load. bobtailing, no code. empty trailer, code every once in a while. loaded trailer … read more The clutch can burn out over time in a manual transmission car if the driver makes a habit of riding the clutch, using the clutch to keep the car in one place on hills or using the...Overview: The Fuller Advantage transmission is equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. Power and. Skip to content. whatsapp +51955515985; [email protected]; 24/7 Customer Support;The codes are SPN 3490 FMI 12 and SPN 3490 FMI 7. Both codes are showing to be purge - Answered by a verified Technician. ... I have a 2016 Volvo VNL that has an intermittent SPN-788 Transmission Clutch Actuator that pops up …What can Clutch Control provide? Our solutions help to improve vehicle safety and driver comfort through optimized gearshift operations. With more than 40 years of experience in the design of clutch control solutions, ZF provides the capability to develop complete transmission actuation systems. Details.Nov 25, 2010. Toronto,Ontario. 0. I have a 2017 international prostar with Eaton auto transmission and it won't go into gear as soon you click the D it will peep and show F. I pull the code. SPN-788 7 Transmission Clutch Actuator. Do I need replace the actuator or there is something else problem. Thank you.2016 freightliner Cascadia d12 automatic transmission R&R clutch an actuator cleared codes still have what could have went wrong or do i need to do something else thank you ... It has 2 transmission codes. Spn 524286 fmi 4 and spn 521485 fmi 2.Recalibrated clutch actuator. 3. Recalibrated rails. 4. Tested inertia brake No codes found during tests. Original fault codes: 705: transmission clutch actuator, spn 788, fmi 14. …Eaton Fuller Advantage (2017) Fault Code: 64 PID: SPN: 788 FMI: 7 Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA): Mechanical System Not Responding. The Fuller Advantage …Service Bulletin – Product Page 1 of 5. Subject: Clutch Release System Wear/Damage – Endurant and PACCAR Transmissions. Document Number: TAIB-0889 Updated: July 12, 2021 Date: February 1, 2021 Issue Description: Over repair/under repair of the Clutch Release System (and/or clutch) due to a lack ofGo to Step V. If Fault Code 706 FMI 17, 18 is Active or Inactive, clutch components (i.e. related linkages / and or clutch) resulted in the fully engaged position to be out of range. Clutch components must be inspected. Contact Eaton Cummins Automated Transmission Technologies at +1-800-826-4357 for further diagnostic instructions. Go to Step V.Manual transmissions used to accelerate faster than automatics, but is that still the case? Find out if manual transmissions are faster than automatics. Advertisement Anyone who kn...The D7GF1 and D7UF1 are 7-speed, dual-clutch (DCT), automatically shifted manual transmissions manufactured by Hyundai Powertech, the powertrain division of Hyundai Motors. The D7GF1 unit is behind the smallest, low-torque engines, while the D7UF1 handles higher torque output motors (figures 1 and 2). Note that these units have …f01.justanswer.com1. Regular inspection: Regularly inspect the clutch actuator for any signs of damage or leaks. Addressing minor issues early on can help prevent major failures. 2. Use proper driving techniques: Avoid aggressive driving maneuvers, such as abrupt shifting or riding the clutch, as these can put excessive strain on the clutch actuator. 3. Follow … Eaton Fuller Advantage (2017) Fault Code: 64 PID: SPN: 788 FMI: 7 Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA): Mechanical System Not Responding. The Fuller Advantage transmission is equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. Inside the clutch actuator. Most people are aware of what the actuator does, but few are aware of how it actually works. The principle of the actuator is to automatically push the clutch release arm (and hence clutch) to remove drive from the engine to the gearbox. This action is simply taking the place of a clutch cable and your …J1939: SA 3 SPN 787 FMI 7. Overview. The UltraShift PLUS transmission is equipped with a Low Capacity Inertia Brake (LCIB) to slow Input Shaft speed for more efficient gear engagement. As the Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) pulls the Heavy-Duty ECA Clutch Release Bearing back against the LCIB, the friction plates contained within the LCIB …Feb 27, 2022 · Technician: Nich1019. I'm not sure that you have a failed part. It may be a wiring issue. The 520271 and 520273 have to do with the ECA (electronic clutch actuator). I'll need to read through this a bit more, but at first glance looks like a wiring issue. The 788 is for clutch disengagement. This can be a worn/faulty clutch, but it may just be ... Just showed a code SA 3 trans spn 520999. Clutch - Answered by a verified Technician ... DT12 transmission spn 524286 fmi 1 and spn 524286 fmi 4. Clutch minimum and maximum values within spec. While driving empty unit shifts fine when loaded u ... VIN BR6264Getting faults:spn 788 fmi 7 spn 522 fmi 7Truck is not moving. The Fuller Advantage transmission is equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. Power and ground to the ECA are OEM-supplied through a 3-Way Connector directly connected to the vehicle batteries. The ECA is connected to the TECU by an 8-Way Connector that is part of the transmission harness. In this video I go over the procedure for replacing a clutch actuator motor on a Ford DPS6 transmission. The information shared in this video can also be us...Common transmission problems include transmission fluid leaks, worn or damaged torque converters, solenoid damage and clutch problems. Low fluid levels or an improper transmission ...Affordable, reliable and built to last, Hyundai part # 414702D011 Actuator Assembly-Clutch(1) stands out as the smart option. HyundaiPartsDeal.com is your prime online source with the biggest and best selection of genuine Hyundai parts and accessories at giant discounted prices. ... 1-888-788-8214; Follow Us:An important requirement for actuators in dou-ble clutches is passive opening if power is lost (“normally open”) [4]. In this respect, the double clutch transmission diff ers from automated man-ual transmissions, where the permissible “freez-ing” of the actuators (“normally stay”) is the default mode. In the double clutch transmissionLinked SPNs. Displaying 1-17 of 17 results. SPN SP Name SP Position In PG SP Length Scaling ... Transmission Torque Converter Lockup Clutch Actuator : 788: Transmission Clutch Actuator : 771: Transmission Splitter Indirect Actuator : 770: Transmission Splitter Direct Actuator : 769: Transmission Range Low Actuator : 768: Record the transmission fault codes, FMIs, occurrences, and timestamps from the Service Activity Report created during the Diagnostic Procedure. If Fault Code 706 FMI 17, 18 is Active or Inactive, perform TAIB0889 Clutch Release System Wear/Damage. Go to Step V. Note: Reference Endurant HD Service Manual TRSM0950 for all service procedures. 8 posts · Joined 2012. #6 · Oct 20, 2014. Actuator. I took mine 2012 in today. It is a loud noise when shifting from D to P especially. And after you turned the car off the next few seconds you can hear it from yards away. It was hearable for a while but seemed to be worse and louder. So decided to take it in.Common transmission problems include transmission fluid leaks, worn or damaged torque converters, solenoid damage and clutch problems. Low fluid levels or an improper transmission ...SPN-788. Spn-520271. Spn-520273 - Answered by a verified Technician ... Does your truck have an endurant transmission or an ultrashift? Please provide the last 6 of your VIN also please. ... The 520271 and 520273 have to do with the ECA (electronic clutch actuator). I'll need to read through this a bit more, but at first glance looks like a ...The unit will be returned completely plug & play! If you have a faulty Toyota MMT Gearbox Clutch Actuator and are looking for a repair or replacement of your damaged Actuator unit then give us a call today at 0203 815 9441. Tags : Toyota Auris MMT Gearbox Problems, Toyota Corolla Verso Clutch & Gear Actuator Faults, Toyota …The Easytronic Gearbox Clutch Actuator is a very common failing part and the same common failing part has been found fitted to the entire Vauxhall range of Easytronic vehicles. The unit is coded to the vehicle so replacing it with a used second-hand part is not really an option without paying additional coding / programming charges at the …2011 volvlo 780 I shift ATO3112D installed new rebuilt transmission, new clutch actuator/cylinder will not calibrate fails on the slip test every time. ... 681 satisfied customers. I have a 2016 Volvo VNL that has an intermittent SPN-788. I have a 2016 Volvo VNL that has an intermittent SPN-788 Transmission Clutch Actuator that pops up …The current, second generation of the clutch actuator – available since 2015 – is fully backwards compatible with the previous version. Electronic clutch actuators from Knorr-Bremse cover a wide range of different applications. It is used in automatic transmission vehicles, clutch-by-wire applications, and hybrid applications.J1939: SA 3 SPN 520273 FMI 9. Overview. The High Integrity Link (HIL) is a Controller Area Network (CAN) high-speed proprietary data link that communicates data between the Transmission Electronic Control Unit (TECU), Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA), and if equipped, Eaton Push Button Shift Control (PBSC). The portion of the HIL that connects ...It says Electronic clutch actuator speed sensor signal intermittent or shorted. I ... 2011 International transtar 8600 fault code 27 SPN 788 FMI 7 Transmission was just replaced along with the shift actuator. previous trans was stuck in the and c\would not come out. live data shows clu ...This part failure can cause several different codes and symptoms. Check my other Focus videos to help diagnose your concern! If you suspect an actuator issue...2 SPN 521486/FMI 5. Clutch Position Sensor - Open Circuit Check as follows: ... 15. Under Instrumentation heading, "Transmission Learned Values" tab, does the instrument "actual position value clutch" display S.N.A? a. Yes; replace the CPCA clutch actuator. b. No; retain log file and call Detroit Customer Support Center at 855-253-0428 for ...The cause of this may have impacted on the actuator. To change the intercooler scoop, see here. To replace the actuator, chock the front wheels and jack up the rear of the car. The actuator is mounted to the bottom of the gearbox. To remove the actuator, free the three bolts with an E10 socket. The actuator will fall under its own …Endurant Transmission: Intelligently Engineered. 4:33. The all-new Eaton Cummins Endurant transmission has been intelligently designed from the ground-up for superior efficiency. This video showcases the process of installing the Linear Clutch Actuator (LCA) into the Endurant transmission.J1939: SA 3 SPN 560 FMI 7, 11. Overview. The Fuller Advantage transmission uses the X-Y Shifter to engage and disengage a gear based on the driver’s selected mode of operation. Gear disengagement is achieved by activating the X-Y Shifter Gear Motor, which controls the fore-and-aft movement of the Shift Finger. ... Worn or damaged internal ...What can Clutch Control provide? Our solutions help to improve vehicle safety and driver comfort through optimized gearshift operations. With more than 40 years of experience in the design of clutch control solutions, ZF provides the capability to develop complete transmission actuation systems. Details.Introduction. As explained in [1], a combination of ad-equate dynamics and performance as well as the best possible efficiency define the most important requirements for modern actuator systems in the power-trains of automobiles. Transmission ac-tuators have a significant influence on the size, costs and efficiency of transmis-sions.Common transmission problems include transmission fluid leaks, worn or damaged torque converters, solenoid damage and clutch problems. Low fluid levels or an improper transmission ...Honda's Valkyrie cruiser motorcycle sets itself apart from the competition with its immense six-cylinder motor, borrowed from Honda's Goldwing. Keeping the motor under control is a...Transmission will not move from a stop (solid gear number in gear display) Gear Engagement Test. Transmission will not engage a gear from neutral (flashing gear number in gear display). Front Box Test. Red Service light on the Push Button Shift Control is on/blinking. Fault Code Retrieval and Clearing. Amber “Check Hybrid” light on the dash ... Transmission will not move from a stop (solid gear number in gear display) Gear Engagement Test. Transmission will not engage a gear from neutral (flashing gear number in gear display). Front Box Test. Red Service light on the Push Button Shift Control is on/blinking. Fault Code Retrieval and Clearing. Amber “Check Hybrid” light on the dash ... The clutch locks the transmission and the engine together. On modern vehicles with a dual-clutch automatic transmission, the clutch can be electronically controlled by the transmission control module (TCM). P0902 is a generic trouble code related to a fault in the clutch actuator electrical circuit.Eaton Fuller Advantage (2017) Fault Code: 64 PID: SPN: 788 FMI: 7 Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA): Mechanical System Not Responding. The Fuller …An important requirement for actuators in dou-ble clutches is passive opening if power is lost (“normally open”) [4]. In this respect, the double clutch transmission diff ers from automated man-ual transmissions, where the permissible “freez-ing” of the actuators (“normally stay”) is the default mode. In the double clutch transmissionSPN SPN Name SPN Description 100 Engine Oil Pressure Gage pressure of oil in engine lubrication system as provided by oil pump. 102 Engine Intake Manifold #1 ... 788 Transmission Clutch Actuator Identifi es the status of the actuator that controls the clutch. 968 Engine Idle Increment Switch Remove transmission. Refer to section "Removal of the Transmission". 9. Keep the pressure plate and clutch disk installed on the engine. a. Lay a straightedge (1) on the raised portions on the pressure plate (2). 2 SPN 520970/FMI 7. b. Use a ruler to measure the distance (A) from the straightedge to the contact apex of each release finger. Overview: The Fuller Advantage transmission is equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. Power andActuator circuit low can also be caused by resistance in the circuit. If the Powertrain Control Module detects resistance or low voltage in the clutch actuator circuit, it could throw in the trouble code P0902. … 15. Under Instrumentation heading, "Transmission Learned Values" tab, does the instrument "actual position value clutch" display S.N.A? a. Yes; replace the CPCA clutch actuator. b. No; retain log file and call Detroit Customer Support Center at 855-253-0428 for further assistance. 2 SPN 521486/FMI 5 4 . All information subject to change without ... To do so, the parametric model of a novel clutch actuator architecture which is used in a modern hybrid dual-clutch transmission is extended. This detailed model comprises nonlinear and switched equations in order to replicate the different modes of the clutch – such as filling and torque transmission – according to its physical structure.It says Electronic clutch actuator speed sensor signal intermittent or shorted. I ... 2011 International transtar 8600 fault code 27 SPN 788 FMI 7 Transmission was just replaced along with the shift actuator. previous trans was stuck in the and c\would not come out. live data shows clu ...SKÅNES FAGERHULT, Sweden, May 15, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Concentric AB has been awarded a contract to supply its new Dual Cone Clutch (DCC) to a Tie... SKÅNES FAGERHULT, Sweden, May ... Volvo Trucks North America Date Group No. Release Page Service Bulletin 9.2012 430 13 01 3(50) “P106C, Gear 2 Valve, Inner Actuator for Shift Cylinder 2”, page 27 “P106D, Gear 3 Valve, Outer Actuator for Shift Cylinder 2”, page 28 The Fuller Advantage transmission is equipped with an Electronic Clutch Actuator (ECA) that controls the position of the clutch assembly. Power and ground to the ECA are OEM-supplied through a 3-Way Connector directly connected to the vehicle batteries. The ECA is connected to the TECU by an 8-Way Connector that is part of the transmission harness. The Eaton clutch actuator plays a crucial role in a vehicle’s transmission system. Its main function is to control the engagement and disengagement of the clutch, allowing for smooth gear shifting and optimal power transfer between the engine and the wheels. However, like any mechanical component, the clutch actuator can experience issues ...Actuator circuit low can also be caused by resistance in the circuit. If the Powertrain Control Module detects resistance or low voltage in the clutch actuator circuit, it could throw in the trouble code P0902. …Common transmission problems include transmission fluid leaks, worn or damaged torque converters, solenoid damage and clutch problems. Low fluid levels or an improper transmission ...2016 freightliner Cascadia d12 automatic transmission R&R clutch an actuator cleared codes still have what could have went wrong or do i need to do something else thank you ... It has 2 transmission codes. Spn 524286 fmi 4 and spn 521485 fmi 2.Clutch slave cylinders are bolted to the transmission. Their job is to repeatedly extend a small rod to operate a clutch fork. This critical function engages and disengages the clu...1. Fault Code P0700: Transmission Control System Malfunction. The transmission control system of the Kenworth T680 truck is responsible for managing the shift points and torque converter lock-up of the automatic transmission. It monitors engine operation, vehicle speed, and other parameters to determine when to smoothly engage or …Sep 18, 2019 · 2011 International transtar 8600 fault code 27 SPN 788 FMI 7 Transmission was just replaced along with the shift actuator. previous trans was stuck in the and c\would not come out. live data shows clutch actuator temp read around 300deg with the truck cold and not running. clutch and actuator replaced by customer a year ago. Hi I’m Steve and ... This diagnostic is typically Clutch Position Sensor - Data Erratic. Check as follows: NOTE: Transmission Control Module (TCM) faults SPN 520971/7 and SPN 521491/2 may also be present when this code sets. 1. Disconnect the Concentric Pneumatic Clutch Actuator (CPCA ) harness connector; inspect connector for bent, spread or corroded pins.To do so, the parametric model of a novel clutch actuator architecture which is used in a modern hybrid dual-clutch transmission is extended. This detailed model comprises nonlinear and switched equations in order to replicate the different modes of the clutch – such as filling and torque transmission – according to its physical structure.J1939: SA 3 SPN 560 FMI 2, 11, 12, 14, 20, 21, 31. Overview. The Endurant HD transmission is equipped with solenoids to direct pneumatic flow to actuate the clutch and shift rails and sensors to monitor the clutch and shift rail positions. The Transmission Control Module (TCM) compares the clutch and shift rail commands with the clutch and ... This diagnostic is typically Clutch Position Sensor - Data Erratic. Check as follows: NOTE: Transmission Control Module (TCM) faults SPN 520971/7 and SPN 521491/2 may also be present when this code sets. 1. Disconnect the Concentric Pneumatic Clutch Actuator (CPCA ) harness connector; inspect connector for bent, spread or corroded pins. . We have these codes SPN-751 11 Transmission Primary Shift…. SPN-522services with respect to the subject transmissions. Co Looking to buy an Ioniq, and in the maintenance guide for the Ioniq, it calls for replacing the clutch actuator fluid every 20,000 miles. I've never heard of needing something like this on an automatic transmission before, so I called four different Hyundai dealers in the Los Angeles area to see how much the cost would be for replacement. Affordable, reliable and built to last, Hyundai part 15. Under Instrumentation heading, "Transmission Learned Values" tab, does the instrument "actual position value clutch" display S.N.A? a. Yes; replace the CPCA clutch actuator. b. No; retain log file and call Detroit Customer Support Center at 855-253-0428 for further assistance. 2 SPN 521486/FMI 5 4 . All information subject to change without ... Download Lecture notes - Suspect Paramete...

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